Rule 391-3-5-.22. Organic Chemical Sampling and Analytical Requirements.

Georgia Administrative Code

Department 391. RULES OF GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Chapter 391-3. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Subject 391-3-5. RULES FOR SAFE DRINKING WATER

Current through Rules and Regulations Filed through July 9, 2019

Rule 391-3-5-.22. Organic Chemical Sampling and Analytical Requirements

(1) Organic Monitoring. Beginning on January 1, 1993, analysis of the contaminants listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 1 -21 for the purpose of determining compliance with the maximum contaminant level shall be conducted as follows:
(a) Groundwater systems shall take a minimum of one sample at every entry point to the distribution system which is representative of each well after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source, treatment plant, or within the distribution system.
(b) Surface water systems (or combined surface/ground) shall take a minimum of one sample at points in the distribution system that are representative of each source or at each entry point to the distribution system after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source, treatment plant, or within the distribution system.
(c) If the system draws water from more than one source and the sources are combined before distribution, the system must sample at an entry point to the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions (i.e., when water representative of all sources is being used).
(d) Each community and non-transient non-community water system shall take four consecutive quarterly samples for each contaminant listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 2 -21 during each compliance period.
(e) If the initial monitoring for contaminants listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 1 -8 and the monitoring for the contaminants listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 9 -21 as allowed in paragraph (1)(q) of this section has been completed by December 31, 1992 and the system did not detect any contaminant listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 1 -21, then each ground and surface water system shall take one sample annually.
(f) After a minimum of three years of annual sampling, the Division may allow groundwater systems with no previous detection of any contaminant listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) to take one sample during each compliance period.
(g) Each community and non-transient groundwater system which does not detect a contaminant listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 1 -21 may apply to the Division for a waiver from the requirement of paragraph (1)(e) and (1)(f) of this section after completing the initial monitoring. (For the purposes of this section, detection is defined as 0.0005 mg/L.) A waiver shall be effective for no more than six years (two compliance periods). The Division may also issue waivers to small systems for the initial round of monitoring for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene.
(h) The Division may grant a waiver after evaluating the factors in accordance with 40 CFR, Part 141.24(f)(8-9).
(i) Each community and non-transient surface water system which does not detect a contaminant listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 1 -21 may apply to the Division for a waiver from the requirements of (1)(e) of this section after completing the initial monitoring. Composite samples from a maximum of five sampling points are allowed, provided that the detection limit of the method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Systems meeting this criteria must be determined by the Division to be non-vulnerable based on a vulnerability assessment during each compliance period. Each system receiving a waiver shall sample at the frequency specified by the Division (if any).
(j) If a contaminant listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 2 -21 is detected at a level exceeding 0.0005 mg/L in any sample, then:
1. The system must monitor quarterly at each sampling point which resulted in a detection.
2. The Division may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirements specified in paragraph (1)(j)(1) of this section; provided it has determined that the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level. In no case shall the Division make this determination unless a groundwater system takes a minimum of two quarterly samples and a surface water system takes a minimum of four quarterly samples.
3. If the Division determines that the system is reliably and consistently below the MCL, the Division may allow the system to monitor annually. Systems which monitor annually must monitor during the quarter(s) which previously yielded the highest analytical result.
4. Systems which have three consecutive annual samples with no detection of a contaminant may apply to the Division for a waiver as specified in paragraph (1)(g) of this section.
5. Groundwater systems which have detected one or more of the following two-carbon organic compounds: trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, or 1,1-dichloroethylene shall monitor quarterly for vinyl chloride. A vinyl chloride sample shall be taken at each sampling point at which one or more of the two-carbon organic compounds was detected. If the results of the first analysis do not detect vinyl chloride, the Division may reduce the quarterly monitoring frequency of vinyl chloride monitoring to one sample during each compliance period. Surface water systems are required to monitor for vinyl chloride as specified by the Division.
(k) Systems which violate the requirements of Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 1 -21 as determined by paragraph (l)(n) of this section must monitor quarterly. After a minimum of four quarterly samples which show the system is in compliance as specified in paragraph (l)(n) of this section, and the Division determines that the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level, the system may monitor at the frequency and time specified in paragraph (l)(j)3 of this section.
(l) The Division may require a confirmation sample for positive or negative results. If a confirmation sample is required by the Division, the result must be averaged with the first sampling result and the average is used for the compliance determination as specified by paragraph (l)(n) of this section. The Division has the discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors from this calculation.
(m) The Division may reduce the total number of samples a system must analyze by allowing the use of compositing. Composite sampling and their analysis shall be in accordance with 40 CFR, Part 141.24(f)(14).
(n) Compliance with Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 1 -21 shall be determined based on the analytical results obtained at each sampling point.
1. For systems which are conducting monitoring at a frequency greater than annual, compliance is determined by a running annual average of all samples taken at each sampling point. If the annual average of any sampling point is greater than the MCL, then the system is out of compliance. If the initial sample or a subsequent sample would cause the annual average to be exceeded, then the system is out of compliance immediately.
2. If monitoring is conducted annually, or less frequently, the system is out of compliance if the level of a contaminant at any sampling point is greater than the MCL. If a confirmation sample is required by the Division, the determination of compliance will be based on the average of two samples.
3. If a public water system has a distribution system separable from other parts of the distribution system with no interconnections, the Division may allow the system to give public notice to only that area served by that portion of the system which is out of compliance.
(o) Analysis for the contaminants listed in Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 1 -21 shall be conducted in accordance with 40 CFR, Part 141.24(f)(17). These methods are contained in Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water, EPA/600/4-88/039, December 1988 and are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) NTIS PB91-231480 and PB91-146027, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161.
(p) Analysis under this section shall only be conducted by laboratories certified by the Division or laboratories certified by EPA in accordance with conditions listed in 40 CFR, Part 141.24(f)(17).
(q) The Division may allow the use of monitoring data collected after January 1, 1998 required under section 1445 of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act, Public Law 93-523, for purposes of initial monitoring compliance. If the data are generally consistent with the other requirements in this section, the Division may use these data (i.e., a single sample rather than four quarterly samples) to satisfy the initial monitoring requirement of paragraph (l)(d) of this section. Systems which use grandfathered samples and did not detect any contaminant listed in Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 2 -21 shall begin monitoring annually in accordance with paragraph 1(e) of this section.
(r) The Division may increase required monitoring where necessary to detect variations within the system.
(s) Each certified laboratory must determine the method detection limit (MDL), as defined in 40 CFR, Part 136 appendix B, at which it is capable of detecting VOCs. The acceptable MDL is 0.0005 mg/L. This concentration is the detection concentration for purposes of this section.
(t) Each public water system shall monitor at the time designated by the Division within each compliance period.
(2) Initial Organic Monitoring. For systems in operation before January 1, 1993, for purposes of initial monitoring, analysis of the contaminants listed in Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) 1 -8 for purposes of determining compliance with the maximum contaminant levels shall be conducted as follows:
(a) Ground-water systems shall sample at points of entry to the distribution system representative of each well after any application of treatment. Sampling must be conducted at the same location(s) or more representative location(s) every three months for one year except as provided in paragraph (2)(h) of this section.
(b) Surface water systems shall sample at points in the distribution system representative of each source or at entry points to the system after any application of treatment. Surface water systems must sample each source every three months except as provided in paragraph (2)(h) of this section. Sampling must be conducted at the same location or a more representative location each quarter.
(c) If the system draws water from more than one source and sources are combined before distribution, the system must sample at an entry point to the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions.
(d) All community water systems and non-transient, non-community water systems serving more than 10,000 people shall analyze all distribution or entry-point samples, as appropriate, representing all source waters beginning no later than January 1, 1988. All community water systems and non-transient, non-community water systems serving from 3,300 to 10,000 people shall analyze all distribution or entry point samples, as required in this paragraph (2), representing source waters no later than January 1, 1989. All other community and non-transient, non-community water systems shall analyze distribution or entry-point samples as required in this paragraph (2), representing all source waters beginning no later than January 1, 1991.
(e) The Division may require confirmation samples for positive or negative results. If a confirmation sample)s) is required by the Division, then the sample results(s) should be averaged with the first sampling result and used for compliance determination in accordance with paragraph (2)(i) of this section. The Division has the discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors from this calculation.
(f) Analysis for vinyl chloride is required only for ground water systems that have detected one or more of the following two-carbon organic compounds: Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, or 1,1-dichloroethylene. The analysis for vinyl chloride is required at each distribution or entry point at which one or more of the two-carbon organic compounds were found. If the first analysis does not detect vinyl chloride, the Division may reduce the frequency of vinyl chloride monitoring to once every three years for that sample location or other sample locations that are more representative of the same source. Surface water systems may be required to analyze for vinyl chloride at the discretion of the Division.
(g) The Division may allow compositing of up to five samples from one or more public water systems.
(h) The Division may reduce the monitoring frequency specified in paragraphs (2)(a) and (b) of this section as explained in this paragraph.
(i) Compliance with Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) shall be determined based on the results of running annual average of quarterly sampling for each sampling location. If one location's average is greater than the MCL, then the system shall be deemed to be out of compliance. If a public water system has a distribution system separable from other parts of the distribution system with no interconnections, only that part of the system that exceeds any MCL as specified in Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(b) will be deemed out of compliance. The Division may reduce the public notice requirement to that portion of the system which is out of compliance. If any single sample result would cause the annual average to be exceeded, then the system shall be deemed to be out of compliance immediately. For systems that only take one sample per location because no VOCs were detected, compliance shall be based on that one sample.
(j) Analysis under this section shall only be conducted by laboratories certified by the Division or have been certified by the EPA.
(k) The Division may allow the use of monitoring data collected after January 1, 1983, for purposes of monitoring compliance. If the data is consistent with other requirements of this section. The Division may use that data to represent the initial monitoring if the system is determined by the Division not to be vulnerable under the requirements of this section. In addition, the result of EPA's Ground Water Supply Survey may be used in a similar manner for systems supplied by a single well.
(l) The Division may increase required monitoring where necessary to detect variations within the system.
(m) The Division may determine compliance or initiate enforcement action based on analytical results or other information compiled by their sanctioned representatives and agencies.
(n) Each certified laboratory must determine the method detection limit (MDL), as defined in 40 CFR, Part 136 appendix B, at which it is capable of detecting VOCs. The acceptable MDL is 0.0005 mg/L. This concentration is the detection level for purposes of paragraphs 391-3-5-.22 (2)(e), (f), and (g) of this section.
(3) Ongoing Organic Monitoring. Analysis of the contaminants listed in Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(a) for the purposes of determining compliance with the maximum contaminant level shall be conducted as follows:
(a) Groundwater systems shall take a minimum of one sample at every entry point to the distribution system which is representative of each well after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant.
(b) Surface water systems shall take a minimum of one sample at points in the distribution system that are representative of each source or at each entry point to the distribution system after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant. [Note: For purposes of this paragraph, surface water systems include systems with a combination of surface and ground sources.]
(c) If the system draws water from more than one source and the sources are combined before distribution, the system must sample at an entry point to the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions (i.e., when water representative of all sources is being used).
(d) Monitoring frequency:
1. Each community and non-transient non-community water system shall take four consecutive quarterly samples for each contaminant listed in Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(a) during each compliance period beginning with the compliance period starting January 1, 1993.
2. Systems serving more than 3,300 persons which do not detect a contaminant in the initial compliance period, may reduce the sampling frequency to a minimum of two quarterly samples in one year during each repeat compliance period.
3. Systems serving less than or equal to 3,300 persons which do not detect a contaminant in the initial compliance period may reduce the sampling frequency to a minimum of one sample during each repeat compliance period.
(e) Each community and non-transient water system may apply to the Division for a waiver from the requirement of paragraph (3)(d) of this section. A system must reapply for a waiver for each compliance period.
(f) The Division may grant a waiver after evaluating the factors in accordance with 40 CFR, Part 141.24(h)(6).
(g) If an organic contaminant listed in Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(a) is detected (as defined by paragraph (3)(q) of this section) in any sample, then:
1. Each system must monitor quarterly at each sampling point which resulted in a detection.
2. The Division may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirement specified in paragraph (3)(g)1 of this section provided it has determined that the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level. In no case shall the Division make this determination unless a groundwater system takes a minimum of two quarterly samples and a surface water system takes a minimum of four quarterly samples.
3. After the Division determines the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level the Division may allow the system to monitor annually. Systems which monitor annually must monitor during the quarter that previously yielded the highest analytical result.
4. Systems which have three (3) consecutive annual samples with no detection of a contaminant may apply to the Division for a waiver as specified in paragraph (3)(f) of this section.
5. If monitoring results in detection of one or more of certain related contaminants (aldicarb, aldicarb sulfone, aldicarb sulfoxide and heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide), then subsequent monitoring shall analyze for all related contaminants.
(h) Systems which violate the requirements of Rule 391-3-5-.18(2)(a) as determined by paragraph (3)(k) of this section must monitor quarterly. After a minimum of four quarterly samples show the system is in compliance and the Division determines the system is reliably and consistently below the MCL, as specified in paragraph (3)(k) of this section, the system shall monitor at the frequency specified in paragraph (3)(g)3 of this section.
(i) The Division may require a confirmation sample for positive or negative results. If a confirmation sample is required by the Division, the result must be averaged with the first sampling result and the average used for the compliance determination as specified by paragraph (3)(k) of this section. The Division has the discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors from this calculation.
(j) The Division may reduce the total number of samples a system must analyze by allowing the use of compositing. Composite sampling and their analysis shall be in accordance with 40 CFR, Part 141.24(h)(10).
(k) Compliance with Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(a) shall be determined based on the analytical results obtained at each sampling point.
1. For systems which are conducting monitoring at a frequency greater than annual, compliance is determined by a running annual average of all samples taken at each sampling point. If the annual average of any sampling point is greater than the MCL, then the system is out of compliance. If the initial sample or a subsequent sample would cause the annual average to be exceeded, then the system is out of compliance immediately. Any samples below the detection limit shall be calculated as zero for purposes of determining the annual average.
2. If monitoring is conducted annually, or less frequently, the system is out of compliance if the level of a contaminant at any sampling point is greater than the MCL. If a confirmation sample is required by the Division, the determination of compliance will be based on the average of two samples.
3. If a public water system has a distribution system separable from other parts of the distribution system with no interconnections, the Division may allow the system to give public notice to only that portion of the system which is out of compliance.
(l) Analysis for the contaminants listed in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(a) shall be conducted in accordance with 40 CFR, Part 141.24(h)(12-13). These methods are contained in "Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water", ORD Publications, CERI, EPA/600/4-88/039, December 1988.
(m) If monitoring data collected after January 1, 1990, are generally consistent with the requirements of Section 391-3-5-.22(3), then the Division may allow systems to use that data to satisfy the monitoring requirement for the initial compliance period beginning January 1, 1993.
(n) The Division may increase the required monitoring frequency, where necessary, to detect variations within the system (e.g., fluctuations in concentration due to seasonal use, changes in water source).
(o) The Division has the authority to determine compliance or initiate enforcement action based upon analytical results and other information compiled by their sanctioned representatives and agencies.
(p) Each public water system shall monitor at the time designated by the Division within each compliance period.
(q) Detection limits for contaminants used in this Section shall be in accordance with 40 CFR, Part 141.24(h)(18).
(r) Analysis under this section shall conform to paragraph (1) of Section 391-3-5-.29.
(s) The best technology, treatment technique, or other means available for achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants in Section 391-3-5-.18(2)(a) and (2)(b) shall be in accordance with 40 CFR, Part 141.61(b).

Cite as Ga. Comp. R. & Regs. R. 391-3-5-.22

Authority: O.C.G.A. Sec. 12-5-170 et seq.

History. Original Rule entitled "Organic Chemical Sampling and Analytical Requirements" adopted. F. July 5, 1977; eff. July 26, 1977, as specified by Rule 391-3-5-.47.

Amended: F. July 15, 1983; eff. Aug. 4, 1983.

Repealed: New Rule of same title adopted. F. May 12, 1989; eff. June 1, 1989.

Amended: F. Dec. 4, 1990; eff. Dec. 24, 1990.

Repealed: New Rule of same title adopted. F. June 25, 1992; eff. July 15, 1992.

Repealed: New Rule, same title, adopted F. Mar. 10, 1994; eff. Mar. 30, 1994.

Amended: F. Sept. 26, 1997; eff. Oct. 16, 1997.

Amended: F. June 8, 2001; eff. June 28, 2001.

Amended: F. Jan. 8, 2014; eff. Jan. 28, 2014.